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This article identifies some of the factors that make group development more challenging for city and county boards than for other groups, and explains the importance of establishing group norms in the early stages of a board’s development. The authors describe an intervention used to help board members establish effective working relationships. Findings show that boards and managers are better able to avoid many potential conflicts and resolve existing ones by developing early on a shared set of expectations among and for board members, presiding officials, and managers.

Cite as:

Margaret S. Carlson, & Anne S. Davidson. (1999). After the Election: How Do Governing Boards Become Effective Work Groups? State & Local Government Review, 31(3), 190-201. Retrieved from

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Anne Davidson, Margaret S. Carlson
Board Relations